Precautions for the aquaculture industry
(I) Overall layout and design of the cow farm The overall layout of the cow farm is various types of cow sheds, milking parlors, feed areas (purchase, processing, storage, and supply of feed), manure treatment areas and other auxiliary buildings and facilities The location and connection of each other should facilitate the most efficient and economical operation of dairy production in the future, and strive to reduce the walking distance of cattle, shorten the worker's operation and feed transportation distance, and avoid overlapping and crossing of the faecal and clean channels. To facilitate health and epidemic prevention; reduce pollution of feed and milk.
In the design of the barn, the barn breeding barn is a place for cows to feed, drink, rest and move. The design of the barn should not only provide a hygienic and comfortable environment for the cows, but also consider the convenience of the workers, and require the cost to be reduced as much as possible.
二 (II) Operation and management The operation and management of a ranch-fed dairy farm is different from traditional breeding, and its managers, technicians and workers must have a modern sense and be confident of the new breeding model. It is necessary to establish a team of cadres and workers with one expertise and multiple abilities, who both understand cattle raising and mechanical operations. Later, through strict labor combination and labor management, the enthusiasm of all staff can be mobilized to achieve the expected business goals.
三 (3) Feeding management Flock breeding has changed from the traditional individual fine differentiation treatment to group breeding. Each breeder usually manages more than 100 cattle, and the herding and adjustment of cattle is an important part. Cows that are primiparous, dry-milk, lactating, mid- and late-lactating, and different stages of growth and development should be reasonably grouped and adjusted in a timely manner. Before the cows are divided into groups, basic work such as measuring milk production and assessing body condition needs to be done well. The size of each group should be adapted to the structure of the barn and milking equipment.
肢 Limb and foot disease is generally considered to be one of the main diseases of streaked cows. Because cows have a lot of opportunities to walk, soak dung in the hoof for a long time, and there are many limb and foot diseases. According to the experience of Shanghai Xinghuo Farm, the materials of the cow channel and the cow bed should be soft and dry; the interval between the treatment of feces and urine in the cow shed should be 1 to 2 times a day according to the situation; Hoof disease is treated promptly. Taking the above measures can be controlled. The author has seen many dairy farms use wood shavings, rubber cushions, or leaky floors to prevent hoof disease.
散 Under the condition of stray breeding, the cattle are free to move around the clock, without fixed beds, which brings certain difficulties to the estrus inspection. In addition to strengthening the responsibility of breeders and increasing the number of estrus observations, new technologies and methods must be introduced. Foreign countries have adopted computer monitoring and tracking cameras, or using test cows, synchronous estrus technology, and so on.
四 (IV) Supporting machinery and mechanical management Flock breeding is a highly efficient modern production method. Dairy farms must be equipped with a series of mechanical equipment, and Jackie Chan must be matched to achieve the highest efficiency of mechanized production. This is an important guarantee for the success of stray breeding. In some domestic dairy farms, the effect of stray breeding is not good. Among them, it is irrelevant that the machinery and equipment are not matched or the performance is not sufficient, or that they cannot be used for a long time. Some dairy farms use imported machinery and equipment, but they should also study the localization of spare parts as soon as possible to avoid failure to match them when spare parts are worn out.
The scattered dairy farms should be equipped with machinery management and maintenance personnel. According to Shanghai's experience, arranging machinery maintenance personnel to work part-time in each working group will have better results than setting up a mechanical repair department alone. One will avoid the operator's complete dependence on the mechanical repairman, and it will be beneficial to the daily and timely operation of the equipment. Maintenance and repair.